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  • Roman mythology

    (47kB) Mythical creatures were often an inspiration for artists. Fountain in central Rome.

    Mythical creatures were often an inspiration for artists. Fountain in central Rome.

    These deities which were the most significant for the whole commune were distinguished among the huge amount of deities from Roman mythology. The Romans were constantly in touch with other nations. They adopted some religious visions as well as influenced their neighbours’ religions as well.

    Jupiter, Mars, Quirinus

    The trinity which consisted of Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus appeared relatively early in Roman mythology. Jupiter was worshipped by almost everyone as the deity of the sky. The image of the greatest deity - the father of all gods was also connected with him. The nickname "pater" was added to his name. He became the most important deity thanks to the influence of Etruscan. The designation of "The Greatest" and “The Best” accompanied his name.

    Mars was the war-god, the protector and the source of Roman power. He was considered as a deity of the fields - the genius of spring flora. Quirinus was his double.

    The goddess in Roman mythology

    The worship of Vesta was one of the most respected and the wider spread worship on the Palatin. She was a patron and defender of the hearth and home.

    The adoptions of goddess from other religious images appeared quite early. The Latin goddess Diana – the patron of women, the moon, and regenerating year by year flora, as one first goddess who was worshipped by Romans.

    Roman girls and boys wore necklaces not only for worship of there goddesses and gods, but had many other meanings as well. They had one in paticular that was called a bulla, in was made up of a charm inside a pouch. Boys would wear this necklace until man hood and the girls would wear them until they were married.

    The other Latin goddess - Vener - the patron of orchards, gardens, abundance and bloom of the nature was worshipped relatively late.

    This maybe why cultures love to send a flower to peoples apartments, the element of surprise. From OC apartments all the way on the west cost to all away around the world to the apartments in Japan. It is a time honored tradition and it is the essence of beauty and purity.

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    The temple of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva

    The erection of the Capitol - a temple sacrificed to the trinity: Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, was the essential event in the history of Roman religion. This building was erected according to Etruscan patterns. The tradition is that the Tarquinius build it and in Roman religion, it is a moment when the images of gods started to appear.

    Juno at first was a primeval Italian goddess, considered as a genuine patron of women. The Etruscans adopted her with the name of “Union”. When she came back to Rome, she became Juno - one of the most important goddess.

    Minerva was also one of the Italian goddesses adopted from the Etruscans. She was worshipped as a patron of the craft in Rome.

    Other Roman deities

    The worship of other divinities came along with the Capitoline Triad. Initially, some of them were the patrons of Etruscan lines and later became popularly recognised.

    For instance, Saturn was initially worshipped only by Etruscan line of the Satrius. His cult became common later on. The Romans sacred him as a deity of sowings. Saturn was the first who gave food to people and initially ruled the world. His reign was a gold century for humans. Everyone became equal to each other during the celebrations of Saturn. There weren’t any masters, servants or slaves.

    The Vulcan was firstly worshipped in the line of the Velch. He was a divinity of fire, responsible for the blacksmith craft. He was considered as a patron of all blacksmiths.

    The influence of Greek religion

    The Romans adopted many rituals and kind of superstitions and fortune-telling system. However, the Greek religious images influenced The Rome in the early epoch as well. They were adopted from Greek cities of Campaign. The Greek ideas about deities were connected with Latin names.

    Ceres was identified with Demeter. She converted into the goddess of the flora and the goddess of the dead. The Greek god of vine grape, vine and joyfulness - Dionysus - was started to be called Liber and the Greek Kora - the daughter of Demeter - transformed into Libera. The trinity: Lececera, Liber and Libera - was worshipped according to the Greek ritual. They were the plebeian divinities. However, the temples of the Capitoline Triad and Vesta were patrician deities.

    The cult of Apollo, Hermes - known as Mercury in Rome - and other divinities was adopted from Greek as well.

    The Roman attitude to the gods

    The Roman Pantheon wasn’t closed. The Romans accepted other divinities eagerly. More than once, for example during the warfare, Romans were trying to get information about the gods which were worshipped by the enemies in order to make them stand beside the Romans.

    Many temples were built to worship the gods connected with social and family life, the revere to the dead, the agricultural calendar. The celebrations connected with the army, various crafts, merchants or sailors.

    Nevertheless, the Roman attitude to gods was far more different than this which was presented by other nations. The gods were creatures which were above humans for Romans, therefore, they didn’t ever try to identify a man with the god. What is more, they treated their divinities with a great distance.

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