Since 59 BC Ceasar had been elected as the consul five times and three times as the dictator. Eventually, in 44 BC he was elected as the dictator perpetuus. This title was supposed to be lifelong and in fact it was. However, Ceasar did not enjoy it for long.
15th of March 44 BC during so-called Ides of March he was stabbed to death in the Senate. He got twenty three blows with a dagger but only one of them was fatal. The main conspirators were Marcus Junius Brutus, Decimus Junius Brutus, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Gaius Trebonius, Servius Sulpici Galba, Lucius Minucius Basilus, Publius Servilius Casca and Lucius Tilius Cimber. They were the most trusted collaborators of Caesar but he underestimated them. They owed him their great fortunes and high state offices and they could not stand that fact.
The assassins were guided by different motives. The choice of the proper moment for assassination was undoubtedly determined by plans of a great expedition against Parthians. If Ceasar had managed to join his army and, after victory, to return triumphantly to Rome, the assassination would have been very hard to accomplish. Ceasar was said to aim at restoration of monarchy, there was a strong fear of Hellenic despotism. The assassins had different motives but one of them gained respect of people who were outraged about dictatorship which was evident negation of the Republic's ideals. The others were dispirited by Ceasar showing disrespect to institutions and constitutional traditions. Consequently the conspirators were a special mixture of disappointed soldiers, affronted conservatives and oligarchs concentrated on their own interests.
The assassins had no remedy for problems that Ceasar did not and his predecessors could not solve.
They could not even take care of their own security. Restoration of the Republic was proclaimed but Ceasar's law acts were acknowledged. There was a turn in public awareness and the assassins had to seek salvation in refuge.
Ceasar could not officially acknowledge Ceasarion, his son with Cleopatra. Before he died he assigned Gaius Octavius, his younger sister's grandson, to his heir. The successor took the name Gaius Julius Ceasar Octavianus.
1st of January 42 BC, with decision of the Senate and people of Rome, Ceasar took his place among the gods as Divus Julius – Divine Julius.